Dictionary for Aikido

aikido dictionary

You will not here most of these to a dojo in Greece, the most common and basic, are those in bold.

Name Description
Atemi Strike to a vital point
Chudan-zuki A punch to the abdominal region
Gedan-zuki Downward punch
Gyaku-uchi Any reverse strike
Gyaku-zuki Punching with the rear hand
Jodan-zuki Upper strike
Kaeshi-zuki Counter thrust
Katate-uchi One-handed strike
Men-uchi Strike to head
Mune tsuki Thrust toward knot on obi
Shomen uchi Overhead strike to the head.
Tsuki In Aikido, usually a Chudan Oi-zuki
Uchi Inside; strike
Yokomen uchi Diagonal strike to the side of the head.
Yoko-uchi A sideward strike
Name Description
Gyakute-dori To grasp with one’s hand reversed; to grasp and opponents right wrist with your left hand
Katate dori One hand holding one hand.
Katate kosadori hand grab (katatedori ai-hanmi)
Katate ryotetori Two hands holding one hand.
Morote dori Two hands holding one hand.
Kata dori Shoulder hold
Ryokata dori Grabbing both shoulders.
Ryote dori Two hands holding two hands.
Mune dori One or two hand lapel hold.
Hiji dori Elbow grab
Sode dori Sleeve grab
Ushiro eri-dori Neck grab from the back (usually the collar)
Ushiro tekubi dori Wrist grab from the back.
Ushiro ryote dori As above from the back.
Ushiro ryokata dori As above from the back.
Ushiro kubi shime Rear choke.
Name Description
Hara The abdomen, stomach
Abara The ribs
Ago Jaw
Ashi Leg
Ashikubi Ankle
Atama Head
Chototsu Atemi point between the eyes
Daitai The thigh
Eri Lapel; collar
Fukuto Atemi point just above inside of knee
Ganmen The face
Kao The face
Gekon Pressure point below lower lip
Gokoku Pressure point in fleshy area between thumb and forefinger
Haishu Back of the hand
Haito Head temple
Hiji Elbow
Hiji-zume Atemi point on inside of elbow
Hitai Forehead
Ippon-ken An one-knuckle fist
Jinchu Pressure point on upper lip below nose
Jintai The body
Jinkai-kyusho Vital points on the human body
Juizo The kidney area
Junchu Atemi point on the upper lip
Kakato The heel of the foot
Kakuto Back of the wrist (for a strike)
Kashi Legs
Katate One hand
Keichu Atemi point on back of neck
Kenkokotsu Shoulder blades
Kote Wrist
Kubi Neck
Kubi-naka Atemi point at base of skull
Kyusho Vital point on body
Mata The thigh; the groin
Men Head
Mikazuki Atemi at corner of jaw
Mimi Ears
Morote Both hands
Mukozune Atemi point in middle of shin
Mune Chest
Naike Pressure point on inside of ankle
Nukite Ends of stiffened fingers
Seika-tanden Lower abdomen
Seiken Front of fist
Seikichu The spine
Senaka The back of the body
Karada The body
Shita hara Lower abdomen
Shomen Face
Shuto Edge of hand
Sode Sleeve
Sokei Groin
Sokuso Tips of toes (for kicking)
Tanden Abdomen
Tegatana The arm as sword
Teisho Heel of the hand
Tekubi Wrist
Te-no-hira Palm of hand
Tento Atemi point on top of head
Tettsui Hammer fist
Te-ura Inside of wrist
Ude The arm
Uraken Back of fist
Waki Side; armpit
Wakikage Atemi point in armpit
Yokomen Side of the head
Yubi Finger
Name Description
Ato Move back
Hajime Start
Hayaku Quickly
Ki o tsukete Be careful
Koutai Change
Mate Wait
Mawatte Turn around
Mokuso Close the eyes, meditation
Suwatte Sit down
Tatte Raise
Yame Stop
Yoi Ready
Yukuri Slow
Yuru yaka ni Smooth
Shinzen ni rei / Shomen ni rei Bow to shrine
Sensei ni rei Bow to sensei
Joseki ni rei Bow to the high section of the dojo
Kamiza ni rei Bow to kamiza (gods)
Otagai ni rei Bow to each other
Rei Bow
Name Description
Arigato Thank you (informal)
Domo Thanks (informal)
Domo arigato Thank you (formal)
Domo arigato gozaimasu Thank you very much (very formal) (for something that is happening)
Domo arigato gozaimas’ta Thank you very much (very formal) (for something that has just ended)
Dozo Please go ahead
Gomen nasai Excuse me, I’m sorry
Onegai shimasu Please (when asking for something, usually as in Please lets practice together)
Sumimasen Excuse me (to attract attention)
Hai Yes
Iie No
Wakarimasu I understand
Name Description
Mae Forward
Migi Right
Hidari Left
Ushiro Rearward, behind
Omote Front
Ura Back
Uchi Inside
Soto Outside
Jodan High
Chudan Middle
Gedan Low
Heiko Parallel
Massugu Straight ahead
Naname Diagonal
Otoshi Dropping
Shomen Straight ahead
Ue Up
Yoko Horizontal, to the side
Asoko Over there
Gyaku Reverse, opposite, inverted
Hantai The other way around
Kiku Lower
Komi Coming close or drawing near.
Soko There, that position
Hantai-ni In the opposite direction
Happo The eight sides; in all directions
Chokusen A straight line
Naka Center
Naka ni To the center
Waki Side; armpit
Zenpo Front
Name Description
Hanmi Half forward stance.
Hitoemi Equal stance, feet parallel forward
Iai goshi Hips lowered, stable position.
Iai hiza, Tate hiza Kneeling on one calf.
Kamae Posture, stance.
Kiza Kneeling, but up on the toes.
Seiza Kneeling on both calves.
Tachi Standing
Chudan Middle kamae, sword in middle, seigan is a chudan gamae.
Gedan Lower level, sword pointed down.
Hasso gamae Figure 8 stance, sword by side of head. Usually hasso hidari, sword on right, left foot forward.
Jodan Upper level, sword above head. Usually hidari jodan, left foot forward.
Kasumi Arms crossed over to hide technique (mountain mist).
Kongo Blade vertical in front of face.
Seigan Natural step, fundamental kamae.
Waki gamae Sword pointed down and back, for a sutemi (sacrifice) waza. Usually sword on right side (migi waki gamae), left foot forward. Other purpose – hiding length of sword, especially in case of a broken one.
Name Description
Ikkyo 1. principle = oshi taoshi, ude osae
Nikyo 2. principle = kote mawashi, kotemaki
Sankyo 3. principle = kote hineri, shibori-kime
Yonkyo 4. principle = tekubi osae
Gokyo 5. principle = kuji-osae
Rokkyo 6. principle = hiji-kime-osae or waki-katame or ude-hishigi.
Nanakyo 7. principle = Yonkyo applied to back of wrist
Name Description
Irimi nage Entering throw (“20 year technique”)
Juji nage, juji garami Arm entwining throw (“No. 10 throw”, since the arms form the japanese sign for 10 “+”. arms crossed, elbows locked)
Kaiten nage Rotary throw. uchi-kaiten nage and soto-kaiten nage (inside and outside)
Kokyu ho morotetori kokyu nage or ryotemochi kokynage ude-oroshi irimi
Kokyu nage Breath throw (There are a zillion of these in Aikido. Most of them just variations of the basic techniques)
Koshi nage Hip throw
Kote gaeshi Wrist turn-out
Shiho nage Four direction throw
Tenchi nage Heaven and earth throw
Aiki otoshi entering more deeply and picking up uke’s off-side leg
Maki otoshi nage ends up down on one knee, having thrown uke over nage’s shoulder
Sumi gaeshi corner throw
Sumi otoshi Corner drop
Tai-atari uchi otoshi from yokomen-uchi, entering and blocking.,uke gets thrown backwards
Ushiro udoroshi / Ushiro kiritoshi pull down from behind
Kokyu dosa Breath-power movement (from seiza)
Kaiten no sae / Katagatame A variation of Kaiten nage where you lock your opponents shoulder and bring him directly to the ground in a lock
Name Description
Kohai Junior student
Sempai Senior student
Sensei Instructor
Shihan A senior teacher, properly used within the school only, when outside, use sensei
Kyu Student grade, from 10 up to 1, the highest: jukyu, kukyu, hachikyu, nanakyu, rokyu, gokyu, yonkyu, sankyu, nikkyu, ikkyu
Dan More advanced grades, from 1 to 10: shodan, nidan, sandan, yondan, godan, rokudan, nanadan, hachidan, kudan, judan
Yudansha Members with dan grades
Mudansha Members with kyu grades
Hanshi Highest title from ZNKR, must be 55 or older and 8 dan.
Kyoshi Middle title from ZNKR, must be 7th dan.
Renshi Title bestowed from ZNKR in addition to Dan ranks.
Soke Head of style (actually head of family, unifier of gods and lineage)
Doshu Head of the way (currently Moriteru Ueshiba, grandson of O Sensei)
Kaicho “Owner” of school (organization) eg. Sei Do Kai
Kancho “Owner” of school (building, hall) eg. Yugen Kan
Dojo-cho “Leader” of a dojo
O Sensei Great Teacher (Ueshiba, Morihei)
Name Description
Ukemi Lit. “receiving with the body”
Kumitachi Sword partnership practice
Kumijo Staff partnership practices
Tachi dori Sword takeaways
Tanto dori Knife takeaways
Atemi-waza Techniques to strike a vital point
Hanmi-handachi waza One person standing, one person sitting techniques
Henka waza Varied technique. Especially beginning one technique and changing to another in mid-execution
Hitori waza “invisible partner practice”
Jiju waza Free-style practice of techniques. Usually a set of attacks or techniques. It is different from Randori where everything is allowed.
Kaeshi-waza Counter techniques
Kansetsu-waza Dislocation techniques
Katame-waza Grappling techniques; consisting of osae waza, kensetsu waza, and shime waza
Kihon-waza Fundamental techniques
Nagashi waza Flowing from one technique to next
Omote waza Techniques that are revealed to the public
Osae waza Pinning techniques.
Shi waza A counter technique
Sukashi waza Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to initiate a strike.
Suwari waza Techniques executed with both uke and nage in a seated position.
Tachi waza Standing techniques.
Te-waza Hand techniques (as opposed to weapons)
Uchi-waza Striking techniques
Ushiro-waza Techniques from rear attacks
Uke-waza Blocking techniques
Name Description
Tenugui Small hand cloth to wipe face. Also worn under the helmet in kendo.
Keiko gi, do gi, gi Practice uniform.
Embu gi Demonstration top / uniform.
Kesa Lapel / part of monk’s costume hanging from left shoulder.
Mon Family crests on uniform
Montsuki Wide sleaved top with mon on chest, sleeve and back.
Sode Sleeve, on practice top.
Uwa gi Practice top.
Zekken Chest patch embroidered with own name and dojo name.
Obi Belt
Hakama Split skirt, wide legged pants.
Koshiita Back plate on hakama.
Tabi Japanese sock-slippers used in dojo.
Zori Japanese sandals for use outside dojo.
Name Description
Uchi deshi (内弟子) A live-in student
Budo Martial way
Aikido The way of harmony with ki
Dojo Lit. “way place”
Zanshin lit. “remaining spirit”, balanced and aware state
Kiai A shout delivered for the purpose of focussing all of one’s energy
Satori Enlightenment
Misogi purification ceremony
Musubi Ending, conclusion, union
Shugyo Training, pursuit of knowledge
Tatami Mat
Uke Receiver of the technique (attacker)
Nage Doer of the technique (defender)
Bokken Wooden sword
Bokuto Wooden sword
Jo Short staff (~130 cm length)
Shinai Bamboo sword
Genshin Intuition
Giri Duty; What you have to do
Hiki Pull; tug
Hineri A twist
Hito-e-mi Blending with motion of attack
Ido Movement
Idori Techniques practiced from seiza
Ikki-ni In one breath; instantly
Ima Now
Irimi Entering
Kaiten Rotation
Kihon Fundamental
Kokoro Spirit, will, heart, intuition, mood
Kokoro-gamae Mental attitude
Kokutsu Backward leaning
Koryu Old style
Maai Combat engagement distance
Mae-no-sen Taking the initiative; Attacking the instant your opponent thinks about it
Maki Wrapped around
Mawashi A turn; a rotation
Mokuso Meditation
Munen mushin Striking without conscience
Nagashi Flow
Nobashi Stretched out
Nuki Pull
Osae Press; push; to immobolize
Randori Free style
Reigi Etiquette; also reishiki
Renshu Hard work on basics
Ritsurei A standing bow
Sabaki Body motion
Sankaku Triangle
Sen-no-sen Seizing initiative just as opponents initiates attack
Shi / Bushi A (samurai) person
Shiki Ceremony, style, form
Shikko On one’s knees
Shinshin Mind and body
Shinshin shugyo Mind and body training
Shinshin toitsu Mind and body unified
Shita Down
Shita-no Of the lower part
Shizoku Safe spot
Sho Small
Shoshin Beginners mind
Shuchu Concentration
Shugeki Attack
Sudori Momentum
Tai-atari Body contact
Tai-chikara External power (muscle)
Taisabaki Body motion
Taijutsu Body art
Tai-no-henko Reversing the body’s position
Tanin-geiko Practicing with multiple attackers
Taoshi To tip over
Tateki Multiple attackers
Tateki-geiko Practicing with multiple attackers
Tateki-uchi Fighting with multiple attackers
Tenkan Pivot
Fukushiki-kokyu Abdominal breathing